Solar water heating (SWH) is the conversion of sunlight into heat for water heating using a solar thermal collector. A variety of configurations is available at varying cost to provide solutions in different climates and latitudes. SWHs are widely used for residential and some industrial applications.
Flat plate collectors are an extension of the idea to place a collector in an 'oven'-like box with glass directly facing the Sun. Most flat plate collectors have two horizontal pipes at the top and bottom, called headers, and many smaller vertical pipes connecting them, called risers. The risers are welded (or similarly connected) to thin absorber fins. Heat-transfer fluid (water or water/antifreeze mix) is pumped from the hot water storage tank or heat exchanger into the collectors' bottom header, and it travels up the risers, collecting heat from the absorber fins, and then exits the collector out of the top header. Serpentine flat plate collectors differ slightly from this "harp" design, and instead use a single pipe that travels up and down the collector. However, since they cannot be properly drained of water, serpentine flat plate collectors cannot be used in drain back systems.
Evacuated tube collectors (ETC) are a way to reduce the heat loss, inherent in flat plates. Since heat loss due to convection cannot cross a vacuum, it forms an efficient isolation mechanism to keep heat inside the collector pipes. Since two flat glass sheets are generally not strong enough to withstand a vacuum, the vacuum is created between two concentric tubes. Typically, the water piping in an ETC is therefore surrounded by two concentric tubes of glass separated by a vacuum that admits heat from the sun (to heat the pipe) but that limits heat loss. The inner tube is coated with a thermal absorber. Vacuum life varies from collector to collector, from 5 years to 15 years.
|HOT WATER STORAGE TANK|
|Operating pressure||1.0 kg/sq.cm|
|Tank material thickness||4 mm|
|Type of tank||Horizontal|
|Inner tank Coating||2 Coats Epoxy|
|Thickness of insulation||100 mm|
|Tank outer cladding||Aluminium 22 SWG|
|Size||2000mm x 1000mm x 95mm|
|Absorber Coating||Ultrasonic with Selective Coating|
|Frame material||Extruded aluminium, 16swg|
|Insulation||Rock wool / Fiber glass wool|
|Hardware||Stainless steel 304|
|SYSTEM INTERNAL PIPING (Tank and Collectors)|
|Type||GI " B" Class 1" BSP|
|Insulation||Rookwool 48 kg/m3 density|
|Thickness of insulation||50 mm|
|Cladding||Aluminum 26 SWG|